This chapter is dedicated to FAIRification processes which focus on improving Interoperability.

Data usually need to be integrated with other data, and be interoperable with applications or workflows for analysis, storage, and processing.

Data objects can be interoperable only if:

  • (Meta) data is machine-actionable.

  • (Meta) data formats utilize shared vocabularies and/or ontologies.

  • (Meta) data within the Data Object should thus be both syntactically parseable and semantically machine-accessible.

This chapter is dedicated to the standards, tools, services and other resources necessary to make data interoperable.

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